(mex) El futuro del periodismo

El lunes 15 de enero recibí un correo electrónico del lector mazatleco Nino Gallegos, en el que envió un texto de la periodista española Soledad Gallego-Díaz titulado “El futuro del periodismo”, el cual fue publicado en el número 231 de la revista Página Abierta correspondiente a marzo-abril de 2014.

Habrá que precisar que el texto es una parte de la conferencia pronunciada en la inauguración del 26º curso de la Escuela de Periodismo EL PAÍS-UAM, el 15 de marzo de 2012, con el título “Si te van a matar, no te suicides”.

Soledad Gallego Díaz ha trabajado por más de tres décadas en el diario español El País, del cual fungió algunos años como subdirectora y directora adjunta, además de ser corresponsal en Bruselas, Londres, París, Argentina y Nueva York. Ha ocupado también el cargo de Defensora del Lector y Vicepresidenta de la sección española de Reporteros sin Fronteras. Actualmente es columnista y miembro del Consejo Asesor de la Fundación del Español Urgente, también conocida como Fundéu BBVA.

Debido a la extensión del texto, lo dividiremos en dos partes para publicarlo hoy, así como el domingo 28 del presente. Añadimos algunas cabezas de descanso para hacer más ligero y comprensible el escrito.

Nuevo modelo de empresa periodística

“Cuando miremos para atrás dentro de unos años, cuando miren ustedes para atrás, se darán cuenta de que, antes que nada, esta fue una época apasionante para el periodismo. Una época de auténtica conmoción, que ustedes tuvieron la oportunidad de presenciar en primera fila; mejor todavía, la oportunidad de ser los protagonistas […].

Obviamente, esta transformación no se limita a la aparición de nuevas herramientas. Sería demasiado simple. Es mucho más. Lleva aparejada también un profundo cambio del modelo de la empresa periodística, que es ya una empresa de comunicación y, si me apuran, de telecomunicación, un cambio del modelo de negocio, y, consecuentemente, de las formas de trabajar; una revolución, incluso, de conceptos que parecían inconmovibles y que han saltado por los aires. En algunos casos, ya se observan los fundamentos de la nueva obra que se está levantando. Pero en otros, nadie sabe todavía cómo proseguir ni en qué acabará el nuevo edificio.

¿Asistimos a la muerte del periodismo?

Lo que los periodistas hemos constatado siempre es que en todos los periodos de cambios radicales, en todas las transformaciones tan brutales como ésta a la que estamos asistiendo, suele haber muertos. Decenas de muertos por el camino. Y la pregunta que nos hacemos no es cuántos periodistas quedarán en el camino (que son muchos), sino si el propio periodismo será una de esas víctimas, porque las transformaciones le lleven a ser engullido por esa cosa mucho más extensa, y muy diferente, que es la comunicación. […]

Esto va muy deprisa, evoluciona rápido y de manera impredecible (casi como la Unión Europea, diría yo) y la capacidad de influir que tenemos los periodistas en esta vertiginosa transformación parece estar cada día, cada minuto, más en declive. Nuestro papel en el debate es cada vez menor, y ese es un dato relevante. […]

Les voy a explicar las muy variadas posibilidades que tenemos los periodistas de suicidarnos […].

El periodismo no es nuestro

a) Una manera de suicidarse es creer que el periodismo es «nuestro», de una generación determinada de periodistas, que nos hemos convertido en sus guardianes, en los guardianes de sus esencias y que somos los únicos con derecho o autoridad para ejercer su control. Esa es una idea bastante letal y funesta, porque lleva a no aceptar cambios, a negarse a ver las nuevas realidades y, sobre todo, porque impide precisamente lo que más necesitamos, un debate abierto entre periodistas de todas las generaciones y de todos los distintos medios, que nos permita recuperar influencia como profesionales.

Creer que hay un grupo que debe proteger al periodismo de los cambios o de nuevas influencias es absurdo. Nos suicidaremos si, entre todos, no favorecemos el debate y el análisis de esas nuevas transformaciones, muchas de ellas imprescindibles, pero algunas de ellas absolutamente contraproducentes.

Hay que hablar sobre los beneficios de la rapidez, de la conectividad, de la interrelación con los ciudadanos, pero también de sus inconvenientes, de sus peligros, de lo que favorece y de lo que perjudica al trabajo periodístico.

Las utopías regresivas no valen de nada. Pero tampoco hay que tener miedo a decir qué cambios creemos que perjudican el trabajo periodístico.

Por ejemplo, yo creo que uno de esos cambios que perjudica es creer que la conversación con los lectores, la intercomunicación, puede sustituir a la indagación de los hechos; que, como veremos más adelante, para mí es la esencia de este oficio.

El nuevo periodismo

b) El problema no es si sigue existiendo el periódico en papel o en la tableta. El problema radica en qué es el periodismo en esta nueva época, cómo le afectan esas nuevas herramientas y si esas herramientas y nuevos procesos pueden deteriorar, o romper incluso, las reglas básicas de nuestra profesión.

Y merece la pena también plantearse si sigue existiendo el concepto mismo de periódico. Que como su nombre indica, no está relacionado con la instantaneidad sino con la periodicidad, con la fijación de agendas y con la valoración propia, e interpretación, de un momento fijo. […]

No todo es periodismo

c) Otro modo de suicidarse es confundir periodismo y comunicación. Cuanto más sé del mundo de la comunicación, más exigente me vuelvo con el mundo del periodismo. ¿Todo es periodismo? Desde luego que no. Quizás todo es comunicación, pero el periodismo tiene reglas, normas y objetivos determinados.

Uno de los mayores peligros de esta apasionante etapa es que se confundan las dos cosas, que la formidable fortaleza y expansión de la comunicación asfixie al periodismo y a sus reglas, como algo antiguo e innecesario.

Las reglas del periodismo

El peligro es que vayamos olvidándonos de esas reglas porque las nuevas herramientas presionen tan fuertemente sobre ellas que no seamos capaces de defenderlas. […]

¿Qué reglas son esas? Las que elaboraron Kovach y Rosenstiel en su libro Los elementos del periodismo son un buen resumen […]: «La primera obligación de un periodista es la verdad. Debe lealtad ante todo a los ciudadanos. Su esencia es la disciplina de la verificación. Debe mantener la independencia con respecto a aquellos a quienes informa (y con respecto a sus fuentes, diría yo). Debe ejercer un control independiente del poder…».

También puede ser una buena regla para los periodistas no pensar nunca en «usuarios», sino en lectores, oyentes, televidentes, que es algo más personalizado. Es como cuando los médicos hablan de «clientes» en lugar de «pacientes». La confianza en el médico sufre un bajón muy explicable.

Con «usuarios» se consigue, sin duda, mucha audiencia. Pero con «lectores, oyentes y televidentes» se consigue influencia, que es algo a lo que debe aspirar el periodismo”.

Espero sus comentarios, quejas, dudas, críticas y sugerencias.

defensordellector@noroeste.com

rfonseca@noroeste.com

77 Comments

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